Youth Bulges, Aspirations, and Education: Inspiring Youth to Peace or Conflict?
Large number of “hopeless youth” are often blamed for social and political violence the world over. International organizations, governments, and NGOs alike propose education to keep youth away from conflict. But what do youth want? How does education factor into their aspirations? How do differences in youth aspirations and education affect their attitudes and behaviors toward conflict and peace? In partnership with Dana Burde, we study youth in Nairobi and Karachi — two youthful cities in countries that are crucial for stability in their respective regions. We interview youth, government officials and organizations to understand if and how youth are the “problem” and how they might be part of a peacebuilding solution. In the next phase of this research, we will use surveys and field experiments to further explore the links between aspirations and peace and conflict behaviors. We will then partner with a non-governmental organization to rigorously evaluate a project to help address youth’s aspirational challenges.
Generously funded by the United States Institute of Peace.
Transcending Conflict through Ethnic Recognition
In the aftermath of inter-ethnic conflict, leaders must decide how to deal with ethnicity. Some choose to recognize and institutionalize it. Ethnic recognition may fulfill symbolic needs as well as address ethnic exclusion and prevent “tyranny by the majority”. However, recognition-based policies may carry risks, including the entrenchment of ethnic identities as lines of political cleavage. Thus, we also see explicit avoidance of recognition-based policies. What can we say about the wisdom of these diametrically opposed choices? In collaboration with Cyrus Samii, I am working on a series of studies to explore whether recognition changes attitudes and redresses inequalities in ways that reduce the potential for future violence and whether these benefits tend to outweigh potential negative consequences.
We are grateful to the Folke Bernadotte Academy (Swedish Government) for funding.
Community-driven Development and Reconstruction
CDD/R, an approach to development that gives control and investment resources directly to communities, is a major instrument of international organizations as well as national governments in the Global South. CDD/R is thought to lead not only to increased economic welfare, but improved governance and strengthened social cohesion as well. Evidence of these effects, though, lags behind faith and financial commitments and there is much to learn through research. I am part of a team studying the Philippines’ flagship CDD project through a large-scale randomized control trial over the course of five years. I have also worked on several systematic reviews of studies of CDD/R.
In partnership with Innovations for Poverty Action, the Millennium Challenge Corporation and the Government of the Philippines.
Conflict, Peace and Education
Education is often regarded in both scholarship and practice as a crucial tool for building peace in conflict-affected contexts. Yet, the impact of schooling and other educational programs on peace remain largely untested. In fact, my book (2014), focused on Rwanda, makes the case that there are a number of ways in which schools can and do contribute to laying the foundation for intergroup conflict. Building on this understanding of the complex relationship between education, conflict, and peace, I am working on a number of projects to assess educational efforts targeted at peace ranging from pastoralist education in Ethiopia, to textbook reform in Rwanda, to youth programming in Kenya’s Dadaab refugee camp.
I work with a number of partners on these studies, including UNICEF East Africa.