The site of Kyzyltepe is located in southern Uzbekistan near the modern day town of Shurchi.  Archaeological exploration has occurred periodically at the site since the 1970s and this research indicates that the site was occupied during the late Iron Age, between 6th-4th century B.C.  From 2010-2011, a joint American-Uzbekistan team from the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World, New York University, and the Institute of Fine Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan carried out two seasons of excavation and survey at the site.  Their findings indicated that the urban settlement, citadel, and fortifications of Kyzyltepe are the largest and most complex settlement system for this period in southern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.