The ASD Nest Egg

strategies to support kids on the autism spectrum

Tag: independence

Preserve Student Dignity: Give ‘em an out

Preserve Student Dignity: Give ‘em an out

Aaron Lanou

 

How often has it happened that you called on a student and she didn’t know the answer? There’s that awkward few seconds when you and all the other students are waiting for a response, and she just can’t find the words.

When a student doesn’t know the answer, the last thing you want is for her to feel embarrassed or humiliated. Though teachers sometimes fall into the trap of thinking “catching” an unprepared student will teach them to be prepared, the reality is they’re made to feel uncomfortable and angry. And this can be even harder for students with ASD who have challenges with flexibility and perfectionism. Even if the student “should know” the answer, you’ve got to give ’em an out.

The next time a student is struggling to answer, try one of these responses:

  • “Do you want to call on someone else for help?” Let them choose a peer to help them answer the question.
  • “I’ll give you another couple minutes and come back to you.” Then really give them some time, and circle back later to ensure they understand.
  • “It’s OK to say ‘I’m not sure.’” Allow them to say they don’t know. Reinforce that this is ok and part of the process of learning. This is often hard for autistic students, but an important idea to encourage and support.

Even better, make a proactive plan to avoid these stuck moments in the first place. A couple of ideas:

  • Provide wait time: Pose a question, and then wait for at least ten seconds before calling on anyone for a response. Tell students to take the time to form an answer, so everyone can feel more prepared. This is an important approach for students with ASD, many of whom have slower language processing. Read more on our Wait Time post.
  • Prime students for when you will call on them: Avoid cold-calling to catch students. Instead say, “Keisha, I’ll be coming to you for a response next.” This will give her time to be prepared.
  • Teach students a get-unstuck strategy: Early in the school year, teach students explicit strategies for moments like these. For example, encourage them by saying, “It’s ok if you don’t know an answer to a question I ask. When you’re stuck, you can either ask for another minute, ask to look at your notes, or ask me to rephrase the question.”

All of these approaches can help preserve students’ dignity in the classroom, and help students save face. This reduces the likelihood that students feel embarrassed—and embarrassed students do not volunteer to participate. Send the message to the whole class that it’s safe to try, and you’re likely to get much more participation.

For more helpful insight into the dangers of embarrassing students, see Cult of Pedagogy’s post, Is humiliation part of your teaching toolbox?

 

How to Do the Do Now

How to Do the Do Now

by Aaron Lanou

 

In middle and high school classrooms, the “Do Now” is ubiquitous. It is a necessary element of the lesson, with a dual purpose: 1) it gives students something to do during the start-of-class transition, and 2) it prepares them for the upcoming lesson.

 

Too often, the Do Now falls into some predictable traps:

  • The task takes students too long, and it becomes the Do Forever…
  • The directions aren’t clear, and it becomes the Do Wha?
  • It’s not posted when students arrive, and it becomes the Do dee do (the sound students make while twiddling their thumbs waiting for directions)

 

To get the most out of the Do Now—and to structure it in a helpful, predictable way for students with ASD—it’s best to make it:

Short – Active – Ready – Relevant

 

an icon of a timerShort

The Do Now should only take between 3 and 5 minutes. Any longer, and it cuts into valuable teaching time. Provide students with a task that gets them ready for the upcoming lesson, but doesn’t bleed into the lesson—there will be more opportunities for independent work later in the period.

 

Do this: Usually have a Do Now that takes longer? Identify a short 3- to 5-minute chunk of the task that students can complete as the Do Now, and find a place in your lesson to continue or expand on it.

 

an icon of a hand squeezing a bar, showing strengthActive

The Do Now should require students to do something active, and directions should state concretely what is is they should do. A Do Now like, “What were the primary causes of the American Revolution” doesn’t communicate to students that they should do anything, besides sit there and think. Always start the directions with a verb, and consider what you want to see students doing for these first 3–5 minutes. For students with ASD, the more concrete we can be with directions, the easier the directions are to follow.

 

Do this: Brainstorm a list of a half dozen verbs that you will use to start the directions of every Do Now. Some good possibilities: write, complete, annotate, solve, jot, etc.

Image of do now: write a paragraph answering this question. What were the primary causes of the American Revolution? Cite evidence from your reading packet from last night's homework.

an icon of a projector screenReady

The Do Now should be prepared and posted before students enter. Students should always know where to look to figure out what to do the second they step foot into the classroom. The Do Now also shouldn’t require an explanation—you want them to Do… NOW! The teaching comes later, when the lesson begins.

 

Do this: Post the directions for your Do Now in the same place every day. This could be on the chalkboard, whiteboard, projected on an interactive whiteboard, or even on a sheet of paper they pick up as they enter—so long as it’s always the same. This predictability is helpful for all students, particularly those on the autism spectrum.

an example of a do now. Text says: Do Now. Read the passage at the top of your guided notes packet. Annotate the passage using the four symbols we have been practicing. Annotation symbols: star icon= this seems important. Question mark= This makes me wonder. Checkmark icon= This confirms something i thought. X icon= this is different than what I thought.

icon of a link or chainRelevant

The Do Now should be connected to the content you’re teaching. It can either be a preview or a review. A preview prepares them for what they’ll be learning in the upcoming lesson, such as a reading about a historical topic that they’ll be debating. A review helps them practice something from the previous day’s lesson or homework. This can be good for math classes, to give students another opportunity to try their hand at a recent algorithm a couple more times. Since the Do Now should be quick and doable without directions, be careful not to present brand new, potentially challenging material in the Do Now—this may cause unhelpful frustration or anxiety right at the start of the period.

 

Do this: Decide for each lesson, what is the best way to link to what we’re doing today? Is it more helpful to review something we did yesterday, or preview something we’ll be discussing next?

an example of an algebra do now that says: Solve the following two equations. When finished, write an explanation of the order of operations you used to solve each. 5x-10=45; y/2+7=13. Explanation example: First, I used addition because...

So, do this… Now!

icon of a timeran icon of a hand squeezing a bar, showing strengthan icon of a projector screenicon of a link or chain

Make your Do Now:

  • Short. Plan it taking no more than 3–5 minutes.
  • Active. Tell students what to do, starting directions with a verb.
  • Ready. Have it posted when students enter, in the same place every day.
  • Relevant. Connect the task to the previous or upcoming lesson.

 

For more about the Do Now, see this post from Teach Like a Champion.

 

Using Roles and Building Self-Awareness

School is social and for autistic kids, this can be tricky to navigate. Social situations– essentially any situations where space is shared with others– can be difficult because the expectations are not consistently explicit and clear. Throughout the day, students are expected to take on a number of different roles: if a teacher is speaking to the whole class, maybe the student will act as a listener, but in the lunchroom the student may be expected to be a more active participant.

 

Roles help us know what to expect and what is expected of us. Imagine if you walked into a new school and you didn’t know who the principal was, who the custodian was, or who the other teachers were!

 

Group work

Group work can be challenging because people don’t always verbalize the roles that they take on. You can support this in the classroom by making explicit all the jobs that need to be taken on: Who will organize the timeline? Who will find pictures? Who will do the research?

 

Help students build their self-awareness by modeling your own strengths and interests. Label what you see as their strengths, too, but remember to include students in the process of role selection. Encourage students to try roles that they may not be drawn to since this can always lead to a new interest or strength.

 

Jobs

Classroom jobs can be a great way to have students take on explicitly defined roles. These jobs can be used strategically (e.g. students who like to move around can get a job of “delivery person” and students who like numbers can be “calendar helper”), but they are also a great way of modeling how to use strengths to influence roles.

 

In older grades, jobs can take students outside of the classroom; maybe they intern for a coach, or go out into the community to learn while helping others. Recognizing that we all play various roles depending on the context is a useful lesson for everyone, but can be particularly powerful for autistic students, for whom “context” sometimes needs to be highlighted externally.

outline of a person in front of 3 doors

Choices

Whenever possible, allow students to incorporate their interests into activities. Have a student who loves dinosaurs? Let them write dinosaur math problems in math class, and allow them to write a story about a dinosaur (perhaps from a dinosaur’s perspective) in a creative writing ELA unit. Sharing interests are the foundation for friendships, and the more students are encouraged to recognize their own strengths and interests, the more likely they may be to recognize connections between themselves and others. Choices are an excellent way of providing for Multiple Means of Engagement, a Universal Design for Learning (UDL) guideline. The goal of UDL is to give “all individuals equal opportunities to learn,” and the engagement guidelines, in particularly, help provide students with a sense of belonging.

 

By middle and high school, students can use this insight to form clubs based on their interests and to inform the courses they choose. Eventually, this practice of self-reflection can help them transition into adulthood and a career that not only helps them apply their skills and strategies, but which they also find fulfilling.

 

Interested in learning more?

Read about ideas for classroom helpers & jobs

See examples of role cards here for elementary school and here for middle/high school, and here for a variety of grades

Fostering Independence in the Classroom

by Lauren Hough-Williams

Fall is an exciting time for students and teachers alike: Sharpened pencils, pristine classrooms; new books and opportunities for a new year. There is a mix of nervous anticipation and the excitement of potential in the air. Returning students are ready for the challenges of a new grade and year, and teachers envision just how far their students will come by the end of June. Fall is full of possibility. So, be sure to take advantage of this opportunity and set the stage for a year of student independence and success.

Teachers, sometimes in our efforts to maintain a pristine classroom and establish efficiency and order, we overlook one of the fundamental goals we have for our students: developing independence. We manage the materials students will be using, we tell the students what to do and when to do it, and we solve their problems. This might help us keep the wheels on in September, and might be necessary as we introduce the rules of the classroom, but where does it leave us and our students a few months down the road? Are we finding ourselves frustrated with the lack of student independence and self-management come December? Here we are, still frantically scampering around the room passing out papers, reminding students of classroom procedures, and being the ones putting out fires!

Let’s remember the opportunity that the fall provides: the opportunity to establish routines and expectations that support student independence. Setting up our students to both expect and succeed in the area of independence can do wonders for our classrooms, our students, and our own sanity!

Here are 5 tips for building student independence in the fall:

1) Set the stage for independence: Consider your classroom set-up

What can you do in the environment that sets the expectation of independence?

  • Keep materials students will be using visible, accessible, and organized.  Don’t hide everything in the closet or keep them out of students’ reach! If they’re using materials regularly, students should be able to access them independently (and taught how to do so!).
  • Get assistants: Use classroom jobs/student monitors to help with repeated routines (passing out papers, retrieving table bins of tools). If you’re always the one handing out materials, you’re teaching your students to sit and wait rather then thinking about and gathering what they know that they and their classmates will need.

2) Stop repeating yourself! Create visuals for all classroom routines (post them and reference them early and often).

Repeating routines, rules, expectations, and directions is ineffective and frustrating! If verbal reminders are not sticking, create a concrete and permanent visual for students to reference independently.

  • Have one spot in your room where you ALWAYS post the directions. Whether the directions are in words, pictures, or a list of steps, this will serve as a reference point for students to begin to use independently. (Short on space and materials? Laminate a large piece of paper/chart paper and use that for your directions visual).
  • Post classroom expectations throughout the room, and reference them often. For older students, “If… then…” charts can capture lots of routines in one place (if I need a pencil, then I can…; if I forgot my book, then I can…, if I have to use the restroom, then I can…). Check out some great examples of classroom visuals here. (Nest Pinterest link)
  • Create a “What do I do when I’m through?” chart, showing students their options if they finish work early (independent reading, help a classmate, work from their independent work folders/on their independent project, etc). Explicitly teach this routine and then, when students, ask, simply direct their attention to the chart. No words necessary!

3) Offer options: Give students choice and encourage critical thinking

Options can help to increase active engagement, internal motivation, and self-reflection.

  • Ask students to make a choice about which strategy they will practice today in math (array? algorithm? picture?), and push them to articulate what it is about their strategy of choice that they feel works best for them.
  • Offer options for how they want to capture their thinking in social studies (graphic organizer? post-its? voice notes?).  Ask if there are any benefits/draw-backs of the method that they chose. Would they chose that same method again next time?
  • Have students decide how they want to handle situations where they feel that they’re stuck and need help. Will they ask a classmate? Try to skip the part they’re on and tackle another part of the assignment? Review their notes? Sign up for a conference time with the teacher? Take a quick break to calm down and regroup? Is there a way that your students can let you know which option they feel works for them that you can expect to see?

4) Comment rather than command: Use declaratives rather than imperatives

When we always tell students what to do, there’s little thinking they have to do for themselves.

  • Rather than reminding your student, “You need to get out your math reference book,” make a comment: “I notice that your table-mates have a book on their desks.” This encourages your student to take the extra steps of noticing what their peers are doing, assessing what they themselves might not be doing, and problem-solving for themselves. It’s a small shift in language, but a big step in terms of encouraging students’ active participation in their learning.
  • Use open-ended questioning when giving individual formative feedback: “I wonder what would happen if you…?” Or “What if you considered…?” For more information about formative feedback, see these 10 Tips for Formative Feedback and read about the Power of Formative Feedback.

5) Build metacognitive muscles: reflect reflect reflect

Stop and take the time to help students think about their own thinking and consider what they might do (maybe even with more independence) in the future!

  • Encourage students to set goals both big and small: “How long do you think it will take you to get set up for reading today?” or “Show me how far you think you’ll write on your paper today in writing. And let’s think about what helped you write yesterday…” This can be done individually or class-wide: “Circle how many math problems you think you can tackle in the first 10 minutes of work time today.”
  • Give students the time and the supports to reflect independently on their work and progress. A routine for exit slips can be great for this, but perhaps instead of offering only one type of exit slip, students choose what type of reflection works best for them: written reflection? Picture? Bulleted list? Reflection partner? And can these slips be referenced at the following lesson so students can be set up to learn independently from past experiences?

Building independence is an active process, and it is not something that will just happen for your classroom and for your students. Set some goals for yourself around building student independence. What do you want to see your students doing with more independence by the end of November? How about by the new year? Have a clear understanding of what this independence will look like in your classroom: what will be different from what you see today and how will you know your students are then ready for the next step in their independence?

Looking for more ideas? Here are a few additional resources:

10 more ways to build student independence in thinking!

Learning strategy resource

5 ways to Empower Students

 

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